There are several types of USB connectors. The connector mounted on the host or device is called the receptacle, and the connector attached to the cable is called the plug. The original USB specification detailed Standard-A and Standard-B plugs and receptacles.

Nowdays there are 7 USB connectors known as:
Standard-A, Standard-B,Mini-A, Mini-B,Micro-A, Micro-AB, Micro-B.Mini-USB pinout and Micro-USB pinoutare slightly different: standard USB uses 4 pins while Mini-USB and Micro-USB uses 5 pins in connector. The additional pin is used as an attached device presence indicator.



Define Broadcast, Unicast and Multicast.
Unicast: A term used in communication to
describe a piece of information to send from
one point to another. There are only sender
and receiver. All LANs support unicast transfer
mode and most applications that employ TCP
transport protocol uses unicast messaging.
Broadcast: A term used for describing
communication that is sent a piece of
information from one point to all other points.
There is one sender and multiple receivers. All
LANs support broadcast transmission.
Multicast: A term described in communicating
a piece of information sent from one or more
points to a set of other points. The senders
and receivers are one or more.


Network Topology

The shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system. Topologies are either physical or logical .
There are four principal topologies used in
bus topology: All devices are connected to a
central cable, called the bus or backbone .
Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and
easy to install for small networks. Ethernet
systems use a bus topology.
ring topology :All devices are connected to
one another in the shape of a closed loop, so
that each device is connected directly to two
other devices, one on either side of it. Ring
topologies are relatively expensive and
difficult to install, but they offer high
bandwidth and can span large distances.
star topology: All devices are connected to a
central hub. Star networks are relatively easy
to install and manage, but bottlenecks can
occur because all data must pass through
the hub.
tree topology: A tree topology combines
characteristics of linear bus and star
topologies. It consists of groups of star-
configured workstations connected to a
linear bus backbone cable.
These topologies can also be mixed. For
example, a bus-star network consists of a
high-bandwidth bus, called the
backbone,which connects a collections
slower-bandwidth star segments.



Windows Shortcuts Keys

Hot Keys

Boot Menu              F9, F12, F7, F11
Safe mode               F8
Cmos Setup            F2, Del, Esc, F0, F1

Burkha Dutt

Born18 December 1971(age 42) New Delhi,Delhi, India
Education St. Stephen’s College, DelhiJamia Millia IslamiaColumbia UniversityO
ccupation News Anchorand group editor with NDTV
Years active1991–present
Notable credit(s)We the PeopleThe Buck Stops Here Barkha Dutt(Hindi:बरखा दत्त; born 18 December 1971) is an Indian television journalistand columnist. She works as group editor with NDTV.
[1]Dutt gained prominence for her reportage of the Kargil War.
[2]Dutt has won many national and international awards, including the Padma Shri, India’s fourth highest civilian honour.
[3]Dutt was one of the journalists taped in the Radia tapes controversy.
[4]Life Barkha Dutt was born in New Delhi to S. P. Dutt, anofficial in Air India and Prabha Dutt who was a well-known journalist with the Hindustan Times.
[5]Barkha credits her journalism skills to her mother, Prabha, a pioneer among women journalists in India.
Prabha Dutt died in 1984 due to abrain haemorrhage.
[6]Barkha’s younger sister, Bahar Dutt, is also a television journalist working for CNN IBN.[6]Career Barkha graduated from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi with a degree in English literature. She received a Master’s in Mass Communications from Jamia Millia Islamia Mass Communication Research Center, New Delhi. She started her journalism career with NDTV and later rose to head the English news wing of the organisation. She also obtained a master’s degree in journalism from Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism, New York assisted by an Inlaks Shivdasani Foundation scholarship.
[7]Her reporting of the Kargil conflict in 1999, including an interview with Captain Vikram Batra, brought her to prominence in India.
[2][8]She has since covered conflicts in Kashmir, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq.
[9]While covering the events of 2002 Gujarat violence, Barkha Dutt identified attackers and victims of a riot as “Hindus” and “Muslims” on television, flouting the guidelines of the Press Council of India.
[10]Varadarajan wrote that it was improper on part of Barkha Dutt to recognise a politically mobilised mob as “Hindus”.